Fatty foods, such as fried foods, full-fat dairy products, fatty cuts of meat, and oily snacks, can relax the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), allowing stomach acid to reflux into the esophagus.
Oranges, grapefruits, lemons, and other citrus fruits and their juices are acidic and can irritate the esophagus, potentially exacerbating acid reflux symptoms.
Tomatoes and tomato-based foods, such as tomato sauce, salsa, and ketchup, are acidic and may trigger heartburn in some individuals.
Spicy dishes containing chili peppers, hot sauces, or spices like black pepper can irritate the esophagus and worsen acid reflux symptoms for some people.
Chocolate contains caffeine and a substance called theobromine, both of which can relax the LES and increase the risk of acid reflux or heartburn.
While they can have a soothing effect on the digestive system for some, for others, mint and peppermint can relax the LES, allowing stomach acid to flow back into the esophagus and trigger symptoms.
These foods, especially when consumed in large amounts, can cause irritation in the esophagus and lead to acid reflux in susceptible individuals.
Drinks like soda, coffee, and tea can increase acid production in the stomach and relax the LES, making it easier for stomach acid to flow back into the esophagus.